Diverticulosis results from pouches that form in the wall of the colon (or large intestine). Diverticulitis is an inflammation or infection of these pouches. Diverticular disease is more common among older adults than younger people (Tursi, 2007). Sixty-five percent of older adults will develop diverticulosis by age 85 (Kennedy-Malone et al. 2004). The exact cause of diverticulosis is not known, but it is speculated that a diet low in fiber and high in refined foods causes the stool bulk to decrease, leading to increased colon transit time. Retention of undigested foods and bacteria results in a hard mass that can disrupt blood flow and lead to infection. The earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcomes will be; however, if complications such as bleeding increases the risk of less- than- optimal outcomes.
Risk factors for diverticulosis include obesity, chronic constipation, and straining, irregular and uncoordinated bowel contractions, and weakness of bowel muscle due to aging. Other risk factors are directly related to the suspected cause of the condition. These include older than 40 years old of age, low-fiber diet, and the number of diverticula in the colon (Thomas, 2011). Diverticulosis may result in pain in the left lower quadrant (LLQ), can get worse after eating, and may improve after a bowel movement. Warning signs of diverticulitis include fever, increased white blood cell count, bleeding that is not associated with pain, increased heart rate, nausea, and vomiting.
Evaluation of the abdomen may reveal tenderness in the LLQ and there may be rebound tenderness with involuntary guarding and rigidity. Bowel sounds may be initially hypoactive and can be hyperactive if the obstruction has passed. Stool may be positive for blood. The initial evaluation is abdominal Xx-ray films, followed by a barium enema, though a CT scan with oral contrast is more accurate in diagnosing this condition (Thomas, 2011). A complete blood count may be done to assess for infection.
Diverticulosis is managed with a high-fiber diet or daily fiber supplementation with psyllium. Diverticulitis is treated with antibiotics, but in acute illness the person may require hospitalization for IV hydration, analgesics, bowel rest, and possible NG tube placement. Morphine sulfate should be avoided because it increases the intraluminal pressures within the colon, causing the symptoms to get worse (Thomas, 2011). Patients should learn about a proper diet, avoidance of constipation and straining during bowel movements, and when to seek medical care. The diet should include fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and increased fluid intake, unless contraindicated. In extreme cases, either where the person has complications that do not resolve with medical management or has many repeated episodes, a colon resection may be needed. Patients will need to work closely with their primary care provider to manage any ongoing problems.
Adapted from Mauk, K. L., Hanson, P., & Hain, D. (2014). Review of the management of common illnesses, diseases, or health conditions. In K. L. Mauk’s (Ed.) Gerontological Nursing: Competencies for Care. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Used with permission.
Homeschooling is the education of school-aged children by parents or home tutors in some cases at home or a variety of places other than school. It is also named as home education or elective home education. Homeschooling is all about breaking the norms of the usual morning till afternoon schooling under fixed premises of school. In this there is no pre-defined curriculum that is assigned for all homeschooled kids.
While staying at home the kids can also take online classes from different schools or learning sites. Since the e-learning is being incorporated in every educational platform ,its playing important role in homeschooling as well. While a lot of educational institutions are providing online certification of their courses in distance learning ,South Africa is also setting a milestone. It has taken the initiative of launching the first globally recognized private online high school in South Africathat is aiming to begin its first year of curriculum in January 2020 and will provide learners worldwide with a fully supported, global online high schooling experience. Meanwhile in homeschooling we don’t need to spend a lot of time planning and preparing for learning materials just using few tips and tricks, and it doesn’t even cost a lot of money!
Various tips and tricks can be used to make the homeschooling more fun for the kids free from dull, stressful and tiring schooling, because feeling like a tyrant or robot sucks the joy out of life!
So, following five tips can be used to make sure that kids’ learning should include moments of fun to connect & build memories.
Playing More Games:
With a diverse range of learning games, kids can have a blast building essential skills .
Games provide loads of teachable moments such as it improves critical thinking, problem-solving, skills, reading ,writing, digital literacy and math skills as well as bearing losing at something and learning from previous experiences to think more critically thus boosting their brain’s activity.
While having fun and playing the child practice the skills they need to succeed, while making learning a positive experience .
2. Exploring nature and country tours:
The natural world can be fun in its own ways. There can be a lot of outdoor activities like hiking, kayaking, fishing, camping that the kids would love to discover.
Countryside road trips can be planned to enjoy the mother Nature and to feel the healing effect of it. During the countryside tours kids can be taught planting and watering the plants and trees, and can be made to caress animals. Other options can be visiting nearby museums, historical places etc.
Get their hands dirty with DIY crafts and Artwork:
Art teaches kids to think outside the box in problem solving skills while keeping it fun. In addition to these obvious advantages ,it makes them express themselves as an individual, unique person. Artworks at times help in bringing to light the mental problems and give insights into the home lives of children so that it can be better understood how they can be helped or treated . Foremost art is a way to express the mind ,as it is a non-judgmental medium that lets people express without any threat.
Lego’s, knitting, modeling clay, slime, Tinker Crates, and puzzles are all wonderful for keeping little hands busy during a read aloud.
Using multimedia to watch Documentations and Animated stuff:
To delve into the topic of interest and discover new interests, watching different documentaries regarding certain topics is a great source of learning. Watching stuff in form of animated movies can also be a fun way to learn new things, meanwhile deepening your family ties. Music is a pleasant and soothing way to start the day .Playing music in the morning can freshen the mind in the beginning of the day.
Celebrations and the get-togethers:
Celebration of achievements and milestones gives the kids confidence and appreciation. Completion of some course or scoring good in the final assessments can be celebrated. Meanwhile a party can be thrown on some important occasions/days of the year like Halloween ,Easter etc.
International days on the calendar can also be celebrated such as teacher’s day . How about some spring festival day? This can be fun and will also be good for the mental health of kids
Approaching the discussion of financial management with the seniors in your life can be a sensitive topic. If you’re hoping to help an elderly family member or friend get a better handle on their monetary commitments, there are several important items to consider. Whether you’re helping a senior straighten out their finances as they transition into assisted living, or you’re simply noticing the elders in your life need to do some fiscal housekeeping, you should always have a plan of action in place.
With age, staying on top of payments can be made even more difficult if the senior(s) in your family tend to be more disorganized. From putting a filing system in place to creating an excel spreadsheet, organization is key when it comes to helping seniors manage their finances. If you’re planning on assisting the elders in your life with their finances, start small by offering to help your loved one give their financial system some structure. Dedicate a time to go through financial documents and bills together, and once you’ve tackled the paperwork, discuss budgeting as well. If an assisted-living arrangement is being considered for the future, it’s important to be financially prepared for this kind of transition.
Timing is perhaps the most sensitive aspect of financial planning with seniors. Explain to your loved ones why they should be prepared for the unexpected, and take the time to discuss their future living situation along with what lies ahead for their expenses. While most seniors have savings set aside for significant transitions, it’s never a bad idea to reevaluate these funds. It might be beneficial to set up a more long term money management plan, and to start assessing areas in which the seniors in your life can save more. Look closely at monthly expenses, and track how much they might need to save over the next few years in order to transition into assisted living, or even to hire a long-term care professional. Now could be a good time to consider helping them refinance their mortgage if they are hoping to put some extra money away in order to prep for unexpected new stages of life.
Though it’s no secret that most seniors are not the most technically savvy, moving towards automated payments might actually be a better option long term. If you’re finding that an elderly family member or friend appears to have multiple overdue or missed payments, or that they’re overpaying for fear of missing a payment, suggest helping them set up auto-pay. Having their bills paid electronically is one less thing for the them to worry about, and one less thing on their list to have to remember each month. Setting up automatic payments will no doubt help your loved one feel even more prepared for any transitions that might lie ahead.